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notes [2010/12/08 21:26] (current)
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 +Notes from 12/7/10 meeting going over class and readings - general comments below and detailed comments throughout readings/​topics lists:
 +  * 2-3 year cadence for intro class, more in depth in between?
 +  * more continuity in the readings if possible...
 +  * 2 hour block with snack / moving around break in the middle
 +  * organizers set precedent for how talks / discussion should run in the first meeting
 +  * add apodization somewhere? glossary wiki page somewhere??
 +  * need better copies of VLASS and SDRATA articles - online version figures are unreadable when printed
 +
 +
 +===== Detailed topic list, with associated readings =====
 +
 +**8/31** --- **//Science //**
 +  - Course introduction
 +  - Introduction to science and radiative processes relevant to the radio astronomy
 +    * Statia: Molecular mysteries in the Solar System
 +      * Why do rotational lines appear in the millimeter regime?
 +      * Small scale: planets, comets, solar system molecular-line studies
 +      * Relevant emission mechanisms: molecular rotational lines
 +    * Chat: Molecular mysteries in the Galaxy
 +      * Small-to-medium scale: protostars, dense cores, molecular clouds, disks, CO and other molecules
 +      * Relevant emission mechanisms: molecular rotational lines, thermal dust emission
 +    * Amber: Molecular and atomic mysteries of intra- and extragalactic nature
 +      * Galactic and extragalactic HI, high-velocity clouds
 +      * Relevant emission mechanisms: molecular rotational lines, 21 cm radiation
 +    * Peter: Transient galactic mysteries
 +      * Galactic radio sources & transients: pulsars, X-ray binaries, Galactic synchrotron background, Bremsstrahlung in HII regions, supernova remnants, masers, microquasars,​ scintillation
 +      * Relevant emission mechanisms: Bremsstrahlung,​ synchrotron
 +    * Jonnie: Extragalactic and cosmological mysteries
 +      * Cosmology: quasars and radio galaxies, galaxy clusters (Sunyaev-Zel'​dovich effect), cosmic microwave background, epoch of reionization
 +      * Relevant emission mechanisms: synchrotron,​ inverse Compton scattering, thermal blackbody, 21 cm radiation
 +  - **Notes:** tricky problem here...
 +
 +== 9/7 --- Single-dish basics == 
 +  - Radio basics and reflector antennas ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:​** ​
 +      * Carl's [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~heiles/​handouts/​fount.ps|Fount of All Knowledge]] handout = 11 pp.
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278...45G|Radio Telescopes and Measurements at Radio Wavelengths]],​ sec. 1-3,6 = 14 pp.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * Kraus (1986 ed.), [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Kraus%206-24.pdf|sec. 6-24]] = 15 skimmable pages
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Specific intensity, flux density, brightness temperature ​
 +      * Antennas as abstract power collectors: A_eff, Jy/K, T_ant 
 +      * Antenna architecture zoo (in Kraus reading)
 +    * **Notes:** Fount of Knowledge great, SDRATA fine, Kraus kind of neat
 +  - Practicalities and Performance Parameters
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:** ([[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Day%2002%20-%20Part%202%20Readings.pdf|here]] is a condensed pdf of the following ~12 pages of reading, for your convenience)
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278...81C|Measurement in Radio Astronomy]] sec. 7 = 1/2 pp.
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..155C|Continuum 1: General Aspects]] sec. 3 = 5 pp.
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..313J|Millimeter-Wave Calibration Techniques]],​ sec 2.1,2.2 = 4 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * T_sys, SEFD
 +      * Primary beam, sidelobes, spillover, etc. 
 +      * Confusion ​
 +    * **Notes:** better reading for this (especially the confusion, 1/f noise reading) - use astrobaki as resource for how these things are tied together. Look for chapter in more basic text?
 +
 +==9/14 --- Single-dish signal path & calibration==
 +  - Signal path 
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278...91N|The Receiver System - cm Regime]] = 8 pp.
 +      * Heterodyning Wikipedia [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Heterodyning|page]]
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..113F|Back-ends]] sec. 1-3 = 6 pp.
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..453P|Focal Plane Arrays]] = 9 pp.
 +      * [[http://​www.naic.edu/​alfa/​|ALFA website]]
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Feed, polarizer, OMT, mixer, LNA, filters
 +      * Heterodyning
 +      * Back-ends: detectors (samplers come later)
 +      * Focal plane arrays (inc. coma, abberations)
 +      * Bolometer arrays
 +    * **Notes:** diagrams don't copy well from SDRATA and VLASS
 +      * SDRATA good, short, fairly clear; wiki article pretty good
 +      * presenter reading on back-ends was good and should be added to everyone readings
 +      * presenter reading on focal-plane arrays good as presenter reading - move this to the end of the course though in a '​modern/​advanced'​ stuff session?
 +  - Calibration ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:​** ​
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..293O|Single Dish Calibration Techniques at Radio Wavelengths]] (first few sections are review) = 17 pp.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * CARMA calibration example 1: [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Carma%20Quality%20Report%20-%20c0599.1D_114NGC475.5.qq.pdf|Click here]] for a high-quality CARMA observation,​ exhibiting T_sys vs. time, gain amplitude vs. time, and bandpass amplitude vs. channel. ​ There is also phase information,​ which will be applicable once we get to interferometry.
 +      * CARMA calibration example 2: [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Carma%20Quality%20Report%20-%20c0599.2D_114NGC366.5.qq.pdf|Click here]] for a CARMA observation that would have been good had it not been for a baseline error, which caused huge phase slopes across the bandpass. ​ Appropriate for interferometry.
 +      * CARMA calibration example 3: [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Carma%20Quality%20Report%20-%20c0599.5D_114NGC443.4.qq.pdf|Click here]] for your run-of-the-mill failed CARMA observation (failed due to weather). ​ The data are still useable, however.
 +      * Optional: Carl suggests [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2007PASP..119..643H|this paper on bandpass]]. ​ The introduction (= 1 p.) has a good description of least-squares frequency switching, which separates the IF gain from the RF gain.
 +      * Optional: Carl suggests [[http://​www.naic.edu/​alfa/​memos/​general/​alfa_bm2.ps|this memo]] (= 22 pp.) as an example of calibration work in practice.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Finding T_off with frequency and/or position switching and/or chopper wheel method
 +      * Bandpass calibration (i.e. filter response)
 +      * Gain calibration
 +      * Pointing calibration
 +    * **Notes:** reading is generally good, but seems just about spectral line - make this clear
 +      * this seems the same as the next lecture - need to combine! **needs work!**
 +      * intro of Carl's paper decent, probably remove the GALFA memo
 +
 +==9/21 --- Single Dish Observing, Spectral Line Basics==
 +  - Single Dish Observing
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:​** ​
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..329M|Reduction and Analysis Techniques]] Sec. 3 = 10 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Observing Techniques: on/off, beam-switching
 +        * Gain stability (particularly the need to map on a timescale shorter than antenna-gain fluctuations)
 +      * Mapping Techniques: on-the-fly vs. grid mapping (boustrophedonic,​ "as the ox plows"​...)
 +    * **Notes:** same as previous lecture - need to combine! The idea was to talk about mapping, but didn't work out....**needs work!**
 +  - Spectral line Basics
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:​** ​
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..187L|The Rudiments of Spectral Line Radio Astronomy]] Sec. 3 = 4 pp.
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..113F|Back-ends]] Sec. 4. = 2 pp.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..329M|Reduction and Analysis Techniques]] Sec. 4 = 9 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Velocity definitions and line width considerations
 +      * Doppler tracking
 +      * Local Standard of Rest (LSR) definitions
 +      * Spectrometers
 +    * **Notes:** unclear what the point was...needs work
 +      * back-ends reading not good
 +      * optional reading was good and should be for everyone
 +      * rework entire 3 sessions - James, Therese and Katie: one joint topic on '​single dish observing/​calibration/​analysis'​ with all 3 packets as readings
 +      * keep spectral line reduction techniques here, but move doppler tracking, velocities definitions,​ moements stuff down to '​spectral line considerations'​ (this is talked about a little in section 4 of '​reduction and analysis techniques'​ reading? ​
 +
 +==9/28 --- Fourier Transforms==
 +  - Fourier Transforms
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * {{:​radio101:​204_ft_handout.ps|Carl'​s Fourier Transforms handout}} = 28 pp.
 +      * The section on digital audio in [[http://​www.xiph.org/​video/​vid1.shtml|this video]] touches on issues relating to the role of the Fourier transform in filtering and digital signal processing.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters**
 +      * FFT Wikipedia [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Fast_Fourier_transform|page]] ​
 +      * Filtering Wikipedia [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Anti-aliasing_filter|page]]
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Convolution theorem
 +      * Discrete vs. continuous FTs
 +      * Aliasing
 +      * FFTs
 +      * Basic FT examples
 +      * Sampling, Nyquist Theorem
 +      * Autocorrelation
 +    * **Notes:** FT reading is good, need to talk about digital sampling stuff somewhere else (need a reading - start from astrobaki)
 +      * keep this lecture just all FT - do less of full derivation (astrobaki),​ more about using FTs: they are linear, etc.
 +
 +==10/5 --- Polarization==
 +  - Characterization of Polarization ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..131H|Heuristic Introduction to Radioastronomical Polarization]] Sec. 1-4 = 10 pp.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..111C|Ch.6]],​ Sec. 1 = 4 pp.
 +      * {{:​radio101:​kraus_polarization.pdf|Kraus (1966 ed.)}}, Sec. 4.1 - 4.3 = 9 pp. (the Poincaré sphere)
 +      * {{:​radio101:​stokes_padmanabhan.pdf|Padmanabhan}},​ Sec. 3.12.2 = 3 pp. (Stokes parameters)
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Why do we care about polarization?​
 +      * What is polarization,​ and how do we describe it?
 +        * Geometric description of polarization
 +        * Stokes parameters
 +    * **Notes:** Casey says wikipedia page on Poincare sphere is good - maybe we don't need to talk about it, Carl readings are good
 +      * get rid of VLASS reading for presenters
 +  - Measurement of Polarization ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..131H|Heuristic Introduction to Radioastronomical Polarization]] Sec. 5-8 = 12 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..111C|Ch.6]],​ Sec. 2.1 = 1 p. (leakage terms)
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Jones matrices
 +      * Mueller matrices
 +      * Instrumental response
 +        * Leakage terms
 +        * Beam squint & squash
 +      * Causes of depolarization
 +        * Bandwidth depolarization (Faraday rotation) ​
 +        * Beam depolarization (mention RM synthesis)
 +        * Optical depth depolarization
 +
 +
 +==10/12 --- Interferometry I==
 +  - 2-element interferometer ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Fomalont%20&​%20Wright%20-%20Interferometry%20and%20Aperture%20Synthesis.pdf|Wright]] 10.1 = 7 pp.
 +      * TMS 2.1, 2.2 = 8 pp. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180...11T|Ch.2]],​ Sections 1-3 = 5 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Fringes
 +      * b-dot-s
 +      * Visibilities
 +    * **Notes:** TMS reading is good
 +  - Interferometer response ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * TMS 2.3, 2.4 = 10 pp. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180...11T|Ch.2]],​ Sections 7-8 = 6 pp.
 +      * [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Fomalont%20&​%20Wright%20-%20Interferometry%20and%20Aperture%20Synthesis.pdf|Wright]],​ Appendix III = 2 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Sky coordinates and (u,v) plane 
 +      * FT relationship between visibilities and sky domain ​
 +      * Primary beam
 +      * Resolution
 +    * **Notes:** the way Garrett and Jonnie split it up is better - see astrobaki
 +
 +==10/19 --- Interferometry II==
 +  - Basic properties of synthesis arrays ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..171W|Ch.9]],​ Sections 1,2,5 = 2 pp.
 +      * Wright 10.3.3 = 2 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180...11T|Ch.2]],​ Sections 4,5 = 6 pp. 
 +      * NOTE: Wright 10.2.1-2 should probably be here
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Sensitivity & noise
 +        * Radiometer equation
 +      * Fringe rotation
 +      * Delays
 +      * Phase center ​
 +    * **Notes:** VLASS reading are very dense, but good
 +      * this section was done as adding the rotating sky and sensitivity
 +
 +  - Aperture Synthesis
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * Wright 10.3.1, 10.3.2 = 5 pp. 
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters**
 +      * TMS 5.6 = 15 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Filling (u,v) plane/​maximizing (u,v) coverage ​
 +      * Earth-rotation synthesis
 +      * Synthesized beam
 +      * Effects of weighting on sensitivity
 +    * **Notes:** lecture, astrobaki not what we wanted; better reading?
 +
 +==10/26 --- Interferometry III==
 +  - Correlators and Phase Switching
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * Wright 10.2.1, 10.2.2 = 2 pp. - REMOVE
 +      * Wright 10.2.4(b) should be here
 +      * TMS 8.7 = 16 pp. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters**
 +      * TMS 7.5 (Walshing and phase switching) = 8 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180...57R|Ch.4]] = 21 pp. (optional)
 +      * UNM [[http://​www.phys.unm.edu/​~gbtaylor/​astr423-2009/​lectures/​correlators.pdf|lecture on correlators]]
 +      * GMRT [[http://​www.ncra.tifr.res.in/​gmrt_hpage/​Users/​doc/​WEBLF/​LFRA/​node218.html|phase switching summary]]
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * How does the correlator work?
 +        * Why and how do you channelize your bandwidth?
 +        * The difference between XF (lag) and FX correlators
 +      * Why and how do you phase switch? What is a Walshing function?
 +    * **Notes:** switch TMS 8.7 and VLASS Ch.4 reading - VLASS was better
 +      * TMS 7.5 was terrible -> need a better reading for this topic
 +
 +  - Calibration ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * Wright 10.2.3 = 2 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180...79F|Ch.5]],​ Sections 1-5,7 = 21 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..187C|Ch.10]],​ Sections 1-4 = 8 pp.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..187C|Ch.10]],​ Section 5 = 4 pp.
 +      * CARMA calibration example 1: [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Carma%20Quality%20Report%20-%20c0599.1D_114NGC475.5.qq.pdf|Click here]] for a high-quality CARMA observation,​ exhibiting T_sys vs. time, gain amplitude and phase vs. time, and bandpass amplitude vs. channel.
 +      * CARMA calibration example 2: [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Carma%20Quality%20Report%20-%20c0599.2D_114NGC366.5.qq.pdf|Click here]] for a CARMA observation that would have been good had it not been for a baseline error, which caused huge phase slopes across the bandpass.
 +      * CARMA calibration example 3: [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Carma%20Quality%20Report%20-%20c0599.5D_114NGC443.4.qq.pdf|Click here]] for your run-of-the-mill failed CARMA observation (failed due to weather). ​ The data are still usable, however.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Define the Basic Interferometric Calibrations:​ phase, delay, baseline (antenna positions), bandpass
 +        * why do you need to do each?
 +        * where in the visibility function does each correction appear?
 +        * time permitting, show a few before and after illustrations of these corrections (or just draw them on the board)
 +      * Selfcal
 +        * why do we use selfcal?
 +        * how does it work?
 +        * emphasize that selfcal preserves closure quantities (and explain what these are)
 +    * **Notes:** good readings, but need to move selfcal somewhere else
 +
 +==11/2 --- Imaging I==
 +  - Dirty map and weighting ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * TMS 10.2 = 11 pp. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +      * Wright, 10.4.1 = 2 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Give an overview of the imaging process: grid, weight, FFT
 +      * What is the dirty map? (show how your map is the convolution of the true sky with the FT of your uv coverage)
 +      * How does aliasing affect your images? ​
 +    * **Notes:** good readings
 +
 +  - Deconvolution and MFS
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * Wright 10.4.2 = 3 pp.
 +      * TMS 11.1-11.3 = 12 pp. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +      * TMS 11.7 = 1 p. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..151C|Ch.8]] = 29 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Selfcal
 +        * why do we use selfcal?
 +        * how does it work?
 +        * emphasize that selfcal preserves closure quantities (and explain what these are)
 +      * Deconvolution methods: CLEAN, Maximum Entropy
 +        * fancier methods: multi-resolution clean
 +      * Describe multi-frequency synthesis (MFS): taking advantage of spectral uv coverage ​
 +    * **Notes:** good readings; no room for selfcal here either though
 +
 +==11/9 --- Imaging II==
 +  - Imaging errors and data editing ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180...79F|Ch.5]],​ section 6 = 3 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..357C|Ch.17]],​ sections 1.1, 1.2 = 6 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..321E|Ch.15]] = 23 pages
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters**
 +      * [[http://​www.aoc.nrao.edu/​events/​synthesis/​2010/​lectures/​Gustaaf_van_Moorsel_2010_ER+IA.pdf|Lecture]] on this topic at VLA Summer School
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Present examples of imaging errors and how to recognize them: 
 +        * their characteristics ​
 +        * their causes
 +        * errors listed in ch. 15 and time, bandwidth smearing ​
 +      * Justify why data editing is acceptable
 +        * how many datà get edited‽ : a lot
 +    * **Notes:** VLASS Ch 17 reading not good - perhaps TMS replacement?​
 +  ​
 +==11/16 --- Imaging III: Wide-field Imaging==
 +  - Non-coplanar imaging ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..357C|Ch.17]] , sections 1.3-1.6 = 5 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..383P|Ch. 19]] section 2.2 = 3 pp.
 +      * W-Projection:​ [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2005ASPC..347...86C|Cornwell et al. 2005]]; click here for the [[http://​tinyurl.com/​2daa8hh|PDF]]. = 3 pp.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..383P|Ch. 19]] sections 1.1-1.3 = 5 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * What is the w term and when do you need to worry about it?
 +      * Describe some methods for handling wide fields:
 +        * faceted (polyhedron) imaging
 +        * w-projection
 +    * **Notes:** VLASS Ch 17 not good - remove it; add VLASS Ch.2 explanation about coordinates
 +      * VLASS Ch 19 was good but we need more material
 +  - Mosaicking ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..401H|Ch.20]] = 18 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Describe why we use mosaicking and some complications involved
 +    * **Notes:** good
 +
 +==11/18 --- Imaging IV: Spectral Line and Polarization Considerations==
 +  - Spectral Line
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..229R|Ch.12]],​ Section 11 = 10 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..229R|Ch.12]],​ Section 6 = 9 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Describe moment maps 
 +      * What is beam smearing?
 +      * Describe different methods of continuum subtraction and advantages / disadvantages of each
 +    * **Notes:** add velocity definitions stuff from spectral line for single dish and turn this into one full day (2 session) discussion
 +  - Polarization
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * TMS 4.8, pp. 112-117 = 5 pp. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..111C|Ch.6]],​ Section 7 = 3 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * How do you calibrate your instrumental polarization?​
 +      * Discuss considerations for imaging polarization products: ​
 +        * Q,U,V can be negative ​
 +    * **Notes:** get rid of this entirely?
 +
 +==11/30 --- Berkeley radio astronomy; wrap-up ==
 +  - Radio astronomy in the Berkeley community
 +    * CARMA, ATA, PAPER, and others
 +  - Clarification of topics; wrap-up