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radio101 [2010/12/08 21:27] (current)
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 +===== Radio 101: Everything you ever wanted to know about the basics of radio astronomy, but were afraid to ask =====
  
 +**Organizers**:​ Chat Hull, Statia Luszcz-Cook,​ Amber Bauermeister,​ Peter Williams, Jonathan Pober, Geoff Bower, Carl Heiles
 +
 +**When**: Tuesdays from 2-3:30 p.m.
 +
 +**Where**: 544 Campbell
 +
 +**CCN**: 06415 (sign up for S/U)
 +
 +**Contact**:​ radio101@lists.berkeley.edu (organizers);​ radio101_f10@lists.berkeley.edu (whole class)
 +
 +You can [[#​imaging_ivspectral_line_and_polarization_considerations|skip to the reading for this week]] or check out the course notes on [[http://​casper.berkeley.edu/​astrobaki/​index.php/​Radio_101|AstroBaki]].
 +
 +
 +For next time, here are some [[notes]] on the course.
 +
 +===== Course philosophy =====
 +
 +Radio 101 is a seminar-style course on the basics of radio astronomy. The class is designed to appeal to beginners interested in learning what radio astronomy can do and how it works, as well as to more "​seasoned"​ students wanting to develop a stronger understanding of the basics.
 +===== Course logistics =====
 +  * Each class will cover one or two fundamental topics in radio astronomy.
 +  * Readings will be provided ahead of time. They are designed to be short enough for everyone to read, thorough enough to discuss for a full class period, and basic enough for a neophyte radio astronomy student to understand.
 +  * Everyone should read the suggested material before class.
 +  * Class participants (students, postdocs, faculty) will sign up to present the material covered in the week's readings.
 +  * Speakers can and should seek out the organizers when questions come up during talk preparation.
 +  * There will be two 25-minute talks per class, followed by discussion.
 +  * Experts in the day's topics are encouraged to attend.
 +  * Suggestions and interjections from the audience should be encouraged when speakers get stumped, though these interjections should be helpful, not hostile.
 +  * Board work is encouraged; slides with pictures only are okay.
 +  * Suggestions for improvements are welcome! In particular, if you know of a fabulous reading that clearly and concisely describes a fundamental topic, or think we have left something critical out of the syllabus, please let us know. 
 +
 +===== Resources =====
 +  * Note: many of these resources are on reserve in the Physics & Astronomy library. ​ [[https://​oskicat.berkeley.edu/​search/​r|Click here]] to go to the "​Course Reserves"​ page on OskiCat, and then type in "​Astronomy 250" and click on the "​Bower,​ G." option to find the reserved books. Others are available online, and will be linked to this wiki page. There are also several copies of these resources in the department (you should not have to buy books unless you want to!)
 +
 +==== Single Dish ====
 +  * **[[http://​www.amazon.com/​Single-Dish-Radio-Astronomy-Applications-Proceedings/​dp/​1583811206/​|Single-Dish Radio Astronomy: Techniques and Applications]]** (NRAO single-dish text), ISBN: 1583811206 (individual chapter PDFs available on ADS) (a.k.a. **SDRATA**)
 +  * [[http://​www.amazon.com/​Radio-Astronomy-John-D-Kraus/​dp/​0070353921/​|Kraus,​ Radio Astronomy]] (both 1986 ed. and 1966 ed.), ISBN: 0070353921
 +  * [[http://​www.amazon.com/​Radiotelescopes-W-N-Christiansen/​dp/​0521347955/​|Christiansen & Högbom, Radiotelescopes]],​ second edition, ISBN: 978-0521347952 (paperback)
 +
 +==== Interferometry ====
 +  * **[[http://​www.amazon.com/​Synthesis-Imaging-Radio-Astronomy-Astronomical/​dp/​1583810056/​|Synthesis Imaging in Radio Astronomy II]]** (VLA Synthesis Imaging Summer School text), ISBN: 1583810056 (individual chapter PDF's available on ADS) (a.k.a. **VLASS**)
 +  * [[http://​www.amazon.com/​Interferometry-Synthesis-Astronomy-Richard-Thompson/​dp/​0471254924/​|Thompson,​ Moran, and Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy]],​ second edition, 2001, ISBN: 0471254924 (a.k.a. **TMS**)
 +  * [[http://​www.amazon.com/​Tools-Radio-Astronomy-Astrophysics-Library/​dp/​3540851216/​|Wilson,​ Rohlfs, Huttemeister,​ Tools of Radio Astronomy]],​ ISBN:​3540851216
 +  * Fomalont & Wright, Interferometry and Aperture Synthesis, Galactic and Extragalactic Radio Astronomy by Verschuur and Kellermann <​[[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Fomalont%20&​%20Wright%20-%20Interferometry%20and%20Aperture%20Synthesis.pdf|PDF]] 6.4 MB>, First Edition, ch. 10, p. 256. (a.k.a. **Wright**)
 +==== Other ====
 +  * [[http://​www.amazon.com/​Theoretical-Astrophysics-1-Astrophysical-Processes/​dp/​0521566320|Theoretical Astrophysics,​ Volume I: Astrophysical Processes by T. Padmanabhan]],​ ISBN: 0521566320
 +  * Notes from AY 203: "​Multi-wavelength techniques"​
 +  * Carl's [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~heiles/​handouts/​handouts_radio.html|radio techniques handouts]]
 +  * Carl's [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~heiles/​ay204_2010/​fourierc.ps|Fourier Transform handout]].
 +  * Dale Gary's lecture notes for [[http://​web.njit.edu/​~gary/​728/​|Physics 728]], a radio astronomy course at New Jersey Institute of Technology
 +
 +===== Discussion outlines on AstroBaki =====
 +
 +An outline of each discussion can be found in the Radio 101 section of Aaron Parsons'​s [[http://​casper.berkeley.edu/​astrobaki/​index.php/​Radio_101|AstroBaki wiki]].
 +===== Course outline =====
 +
 +**8/31** --- **//Science //**
 +  - Course introduction
 +  - Why is radio awesome?​! ​ Discussion of relevant science and radiative processes from your five organizers.
 +  - Course logistics
 +
 +**9/7** --- **//​Single-dish basics //**
 +  - Radio basics and reflector antennas **(Katey Alatalo)**
 +  - Practicalities and Performance Parameters **(Amber Bauermeister)**
 +
 +**9/14** --- **//​Single-dish signal path & calibration //**
 +  - Signal path **(Chat Hull)**
 +  - Calibration **(Katie Silverio)**
 +
 +**9/21** --- **//Single Dish Imaging, Spectral Line //**
 +  - Single Dish Imaging **(Therese Jones)**
 +  - Spectral line basics **(James McBride)**
 +
 +**9/28** --- **//Fourier Transforms //​**\\ ​
 +Combined lecture: **(Keaton Burns and Terry Filiba)**
 +
 +**10/5** --- **//​Polarization //**
 +  - Characterization of Polarization **(Chat Hull)**
 +  - Measurement of Polarization **(Nicholas McConnell)**
 +
 +**10/12** --- **//​Interferometry I //**
 +  - 2-element interferometer **(Karto Keating)**
 +  - Interferometer response **(Jonnie Pober)**
 +
 +**10/19** --- **//​Interferometry II //**
 +  - Basic properties of synthesis arrays **(Peter Williams)**
 +  - Aperture Synthesis **(Toki Suzuki)**
 +
 +**10/26** --- **//​Interferometry III //**
 +  - Correlators & phase switching **(Terry Filiba)**
 +  - Calibration **(Katey Alatalo)**
 +
 +**11/2** --- **//Imaging I //**
 +  - Dirty map and weighting **(Jonnie Pober)**
 +  - Deconvolution and MFS **(Peter Williams)**
 +
 +**11/9** --- **//Imaging II: Imaging Errors & Data Editing//​**\\
 +Combined lecture: **(Karto Keating and Casey Law)**
 +
 +**11/16** --- **//Imaging III: Wide-field Imaging //**
 +  - Non-coplanar imaging **(Statia Cook)**
 +  - Mosaicking **(Steve Croft)**
 +
 +**11/18** --- **//Imaging IV: Spectral Line and Polarization Considerations //**\\
 +  - Spectral Line **(Statia Cook)**
 +  - Polarization **(Amber Bauermeister)**
 +
 +**11/30** --- **//​Berkeley radio astronomy; wrap-up //**
 +  - Radio astronomy in the Berkeley community (presenters & audience)
 +  - Topic clarification,​ wrap-up (audience)
 +===== Detailed topic list, with associated readings =====
 +
 +**8/31** --- **//Science //**
 +  - Course introduction
 +  - Introduction to science and radiative processes relevant to the radio astronomy
 +    * Statia: Molecular mysteries in the Solar System
 +      * Why do rotational lines appear in the millimeter regime?
 +      * Small scale: planets, comets, solar system molecular-line studies
 +      * Relevant emission mechanisms: molecular rotational lines
 +    * Chat: Molecular mysteries in the Galaxy
 +      * Small-to-medium scale: protostars, dense cores, molecular clouds, disks, CO and other molecules
 +      * Relevant emission mechanisms: molecular rotational lines, thermal dust emission
 +    * Amber: Molecular and atomic mysteries of intra- and extragalactic nature
 +      * Galactic and extragalactic HI, high-velocity clouds
 +      * Relevant emission mechanisms: molecular rotational lines, 21 cm radiation
 +    * Peter: Transient galactic mysteries
 +      * Galactic radio sources & transients: pulsars, X-ray binaries, Galactic synchrotron background, Bremsstrahlung in HII regions, supernova remnants, masers, microquasars,​ scintillation
 +      * Relevant emission mechanisms: Bremsstrahlung,​ synchrotron
 +    * Jonnie: Extragalactic and cosmological mysteries
 +      * Cosmology: quasars and radio galaxies, galaxy clusters (Sunyaev-Zel'​dovich effect), cosmic microwave background, epoch of reionization
 +      * Relevant emission mechanisms: synchrotron,​ inverse Compton scattering, thermal blackbody, 21 cm radiation
 +
 +== 9/7 --- Single-dish basics == 
 +  - Radio basics and reflector antennas ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:​** ​
 +      * Carl's [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~heiles/​handouts/​fount.ps|Fount of All Knowledge]] handout = 11 pp.
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278...45G|Radio Telescopes and Measurements at Radio Wavelengths]],​ sec. 1-3,6 = 14 pp.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * Kraus (1986 ed.), [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Kraus%206-24.pdf|sec. 6-24]] = 15 skimmable pages
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Specific intensity, flux density, brightness temperature ​
 +      * Antennas as abstract power collectors: A_eff, Jy/K, T_ant 
 +      * Antenna architecture zoo (in Kraus reading)
 +  - Practicalities and Performance Parameters
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:** ([[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Day%2002%20-%20Part%202%20Readings.pdf|here]] is a condensed pdf of the following ~12 pages of reading, for your convenience)
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278...81C|Measurement in Radio Astronomy]] sec. 7 = 1/2 pp.
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..155C|Continuum 1: General Aspects]] sec. 3 = 5 pp.
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..313J|Millimeter-Wave Calibration Techniques]],​ sec 2.1,2.2 = 4 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * T_sys, SEFD
 +      * Primary beam, sidelobes, spillover, etc. 
 +      * Confusion ​
 +
 +==9/14 --- Single-dish signal path & calibration==
 +  - Signal path 
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278...91N|The Receiver System - cm Regime]] = 8 pp.
 +      * Heterodyning Wikipedia [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Heterodyning|page]]
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..113F|Back-ends]] sec. 1-3 = 6 pp.
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..453P|Focal Plane Arrays]] = 9 pp.
 +      * [[http://​www.naic.edu/​alfa/​|ALFA website]]
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Feed, polarizer, OMT, mixer, LNA, filters
 +      * Heterodyning
 +      * Back-ends: detectors (samplers come later)
 +      * Focal plane arrays (inc. coma, abberations)
 +      * Bolometer arrays
 +  - Calibration ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:​** ​
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..293O|Single Dish Calibration Techniques at Radio Wavelengths]] (first few sections are review) = 17 pp.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * CARMA calibration example 1: [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Carma%20Quality%20Report%20-%20c0599.1D_114NGC475.5.qq.pdf|Click here]] for a high-quality CARMA observation,​ exhibiting T_sys vs. time, gain amplitude vs. time, and bandpass amplitude vs. channel. ​ There is also phase information,​ which will be applicable once we get to interferometry.
 +      * CARMA calibration example 2: [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Carma%20Quality%20Report%20-%20c0599.2D_114NGC366.5.qq.pdf|Click here]] for a CARMA observation that would have been good had it not been for a baseline error, which caused huge phase slopes across the bandpass. ​ Appropriate for interferometry.
 +      * CARMA calibration example 3: [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Carma%20Quality%20Report%20-%20c0599.5D_114NGC443.4.qq.pdf|Click here]] for your run-of-the-mill failed CARMA observation (failed due to weather). ​ The data are still useable, however.
 +      * Optional: Carl suggests [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2007PASP..119..643H|this paper on bandpass]]. ​ The introduction (= 1 p.) has a good description of least-squares frequency switching, which separates the IF gain from the RF gain.
 +      * Optional: Carl suggests [[http://​www.naic.edu/​alfa/​memos/​general/​alfa_bm2.ps|this memo]] (= 22 pp.) as an example of calibration work in practice.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Finding T_off with frequency and/or position switching and/or chopper wheel method
 +      * Bandpass calibration (i.e. filter response)
 +      * Gain calibration
 +      * Pointing calibration
 +
 +==9/21 --- Single Dish Observing, Spectral Line Basics==
 +  - Single Dish Observing
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:​** ​
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..329M|Reduction and Analysis Techniques]] Sec. 3 = 10 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Observing Techniques: on/off, beam-switching
 +        * Gain stability (particularly the need to map on a timescale shorter than antenna-gain fluctuations)
 +      * Mapping Techniques: on-the-fly vs. grid mapping (boustrophedonic,​ "as the ox plows"​...)
 +  - Spectral line Basics
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:​** ​
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..187L|The Rudiments of Spectral Line Radio Astronomy]] Sec. 3 = 4 pp.
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..113F|Back-ends]] Sec. 4. = 2 pp.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..329M|Reduction and Analysis Techniques]] Sec. 4 = 9 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Velocity definitions and line width considerations
 +      * Doppler tracking
 +      * Local Standard of Rest (LSR) definitions
 +      * Spectrometers
 +
 +==9/28 --- Fourier Transforms==
 +  - Fourier Transforms
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * {{:​radio101:​204_ft_handout.ps|Carl'​s Fourier Transforms handout}} = 28 pp.
 +      * The section on digital audio in [[http://​www.xiph.org/​video/​vid1.shtml|this video]] touches on issues relating to the role of the Fourier transform in filtering and digital signal processing.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters**
 +      * FFT Wikipedia [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Fast_Fourier_transform|page]] ​
 +      * Filtering Wikipedia [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Anti-aliasing_filter|page]]
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Convolution theorem
 +      * Discrete vs. continuous FTs
 +      * Aliasing
 +      * FFTs
 +      * Basic FT examples
 +      * Sampling, Nyquist Theorem
 +      * Autocorrelation
 +
 +==10/5 --- Polarization==
 +  - Characterization of Polarization ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..131H|Heuristic Introduction to Radioastronomical Polarization]] Sec. 1-4 = 10 pp.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..111C|Ch.6]],​ Sec. 1 = 4 pp.
 +      * {{:​radio101:​kraus_polarization.pdf|Kraus (1966 ed.)}}, Sec. 4.1 - 4.3 = 9 pp. (the Poincaré sphere)
 +      * {{:​radio101:​stokes_padmanabhan.pdf|Padmanabhan}},​ Sec. 3.12.2 = 3 pp. (Stokes parameters)
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Why do we care about polarization?​
 +      * What is polarization,​ and how do we describe it?
 +        * Geometric description of polarization
 +        * Stokes parameters
 +  - Measurement of Polarization ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * SDRATA [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2002ASPC..278..131H|Heuristic Introduction to Radioastronomical Polarization]] Sec. 5-8 = 12 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..111C|Ch.6]],​ Sec. 2.1 = 1 p. (leakage terms)
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Jones matrices
 +      * Mueller matrices
 +      * Instrumental response
 +        * Leakage terms
 +        * Beam squint & squash
 +      * Causes of depolarization
 +        * Bandwidth depolarization (Faraday rotation) ​
 +        * Beam depolarization (mention RM synthesis)
 +        * Optical depth depolarization
 +
 +==10/12 --- Interferometry I==
 +  - 2-element interferometer ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Fomalont%20&​%20Wright%20-%20Interferometry%20and%20Aperture%20Synthesis.pdf|Wright]] 10.1 = 7 pp.
 +      * TMS 2.1, 2.2 = 8 pp. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180...11T|Ch.2]],​ Sections 1-3 = 5 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Fringes
 +      * b-dot-s
 +      * Visibilities
 +  - Interferometer response ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * TMS 2.3, 2.4 = 10 pp. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180...11T|Ch.2]],​ Sections 7-8 = 6 pp.
 +      * [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Fomalont%20&​%20Wright%20-%20Interferometry%20and%20Aperture%20Synthesis.pdf|Wright]],​ Appendix III = 2 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Sky coordinates and (u,v) plane 
 +      * FT relationship between visibilities and sky domain ​
 +      * Primary beam
 +      * Resolution
 +
 +==10/19 --- Interferometry II==
 +  - Basic properties of synthesis arrays ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..171W|Ch.9]],​ Sections 1,2,5 = 2 pp.
 +      * Wright 10.3.3 = 2 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180...11T|Ch.2]],​ Sections 4,5 = 6 pp. 
 +      * NOTE: Wright 10.2.1-2 should probably be here
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Sensitivity & noise
 +        * Radiometer equation
 +      * Fringe rotation
 +      * Delays
 +      * Phase center ​
 +  - Aperture Synthesis
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * Wright 10.3.1, 10.3.2 = 5 pp. 
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters**
 +      * TMS 5.6 = 15 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Filling (u,v) plane/​maximizing (u,v) coverage ​
 +      * Earth-rotation synthesis
 +      * Synthesized beam
 +      * Effects of weighting on sensitivity
 +    ​
 +==10/26 --- Interferometry III==
 +  - Correlators and Phase Switching
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * Wright 10.2.1, 10.2.2 = 2 pp.
 +      * Wright 10.2.4(b) should be here
 +      * TMS 8.7 = 16 pp. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters**
 +      * TMS 7.5 (Walshing and phase switching) = 8 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180...57R|Ch.4]] = 21 pp. (optional)
 +      * UNM [[http://​www.phys.unm.edu/​~gbtaylor/​astr423-2009/​lectures/​correlators.pdf|lecture on correlators]]
 +      * GMRT [[http://​www.ncra.tifr.res.in/​gmrt_hpage/​Users/​doc/​WEBLF/​LFRA/​node218.html|phase switching summary]]
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * How does the correlator work?
 +        * Why and how do you channelize your bandwidth?
 +        * The difference between XF (lag) and FX correlators
 +      * Why and how do you phase switch? What is a Walshing function?
 +  - Calibration ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * Wright 10.2.3 = 2 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180...79F|Ch.5]],​ Sections 1-5,7 = 21 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..187C|Ch.10]],​ Sections 1-4 = 8 pp.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters:​**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..187C|Ch.10]],​ Section 5 = 4 pp.
 +      * CARMA calibration example 1: [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Carma%20Quality%20Report%20-%20c0599.1D_114NGC475.5.qq.pdf|Click here]] for a high-quality CARMA observation,​ exhibiting T_sys vs. time, gain amplitude and phase vs. time, and bandpass amplitude vs. channel.
 +      * CARMA calibration example 2: [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Carma%20Quality%20Report%20-%20c0599.2D_114NGC366.5.qq.pdf|Click here]] for a CARMA observation that would have been good had it not been for a baseline error, which caused huge phase slopes across the bandpass.
 +      * CARMA calibration example 3: [[http://​astro.berkeley.edu/​~pkwill/​radio101/​Carma%20Quality%20Report%20-%20c0599.5D_114NGC443.4.qq.pdf|Click here]] for your run-of-the-mill failed CARMA observation (failed due to weather). ​ The data are still usable, however.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Define the Basic Interferometric Calibrations:​ phase, delay, baseline (antenna positions), bandpass
 +        * why do you need to do each?
 +        * where in the visibility function does each correction appear?
 +        * time permitting, show a few before and after illustrations of these corrections (or just draw them on the board)
 +      * Selfcal
 +        * why do we use selfcal?
 +        * how does it work?
 +        * emphasize that selfcal preserves closure quantities (and explain what these are)
 +
 +==11/2 --- Imaging I==
 +  - Dirty map and weighting ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * TMS 10.2 = 11 pp. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +      * Wright, 10.4.1 = 2 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Give an overview of the imaging process: grid, weight, FFT
 +      * What is the dirty map? (show how your map is the convolution of the true sky with the FT of your uv coverage)
 +      * How does aliasing affect your images? ​
 +  - Deconvolution and MFS
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * Wright 10.4.2 = 3 pp.
 +      * TMS 11.1-11.3 = 12 pp. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +      * TMS 11.7 = 1 p. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..151C|Ch.8]] = 29 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Selfcal
 +        * why do we use selfcal?
 +        * how does it work?
 +        * emphasize that selfcal preserves closure quantities (and explain what these are)
 +      * Deconvolution methods: CLEAN, Maximum Entropy
 +        * fancier methods: multi-resolution clean
 +      * Describe multi-frequency synthesis (MFS): taking advantage of spectral uv coverage ​
 +
 +==11/9 --- Imaging II==
 +  - Imaging errors and data editing ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180...79F|Ch.5]],​ section 6 = 3 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..357C|Ch.17]],​ sections 1.1, 1.2 = 6 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..321E|Ch.15]] = 23 pages
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters**
 +      * [[http://​www.aoc.nrao.edu/​events/​synthesis/​2010/​lectures/​Gustaaf_van_Moorsel_2010_ER+IA.pdf|Lecture]] on this topic at VLA Summer School
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Present examples of imaging errors and how to recognize them: 
 +        * their characteristics ​
 +        * their causes
 +        * errors listed in ch. 15 and time, bandwidth smearing ​
 +      * Justify why data editing is acceptable
 +        * how many datà get edited‽ : a lot
 +  ​
 +==11/16 --- Imaging III: Wide-field Imaging==
 +  - Non-coplanar imaging ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..357C|Ch.17]] , sections 1.3-1.6 = 5 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..383P|Ch. 19]] section 2.2 = 3 pp.
 +      * W-Projection:​ [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​2005ASPC..347...86C|Cornwell et al. 2005]]; click here for the [[http://​tinyurl.com/​2daa8hh|PDF]]. = 3 pp.
 +    * **Additional Readings for Presenters**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..383P|Ch. 19]] sections 1.1-1.3 = 5 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * What is the w term and when do you need to worry about it?
 +      * Describe some methods for handling wide fields:
 +        * faceted (polyhedron) imaging
 +        * w-projection
 +  - Mosaicking ​
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..401H|Ch.20]] = 18 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Describe why we use mosaicking and some complications involved
 +
 +==11/18 --- Imaging IV: Spectral Line and Polarization Considerations==
 +  - Spectral Line
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..229R|Ch.12]],​ Section 11 = 10 pp.
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..229R|Ch.12]],​ Section 6 = 9 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * Describe moment maps 
 +      * What is beam smearing?
 +      * Describe different methods of continuum subtraction and advantages / disadvantages of each
 +  - Polarization
 +    * **Readings for Everyone:**
 +      * TMS 4.8, pp. 112-117 = 5 pp. (email ''​pwilliams@astro.berkeley.edu''​ for access)
 +      * VLASS [[http://​adsabs.harvard.edu/​abs/​1999ASPC..180..111C|Ch.6]],​ Section 7 = 3 pp.
 +    * **Specific Topics to be Covered:**
 +      * How do you calibrate your instrumental polarization?​
 +      * Discuss considerations for imaging polarization products: ​
 +        * Q,U,V can be negative ​
 +
 +==11/30 --- Berkeley radio astronomy; wrap-up ==
 +  - Radio astronomy in the Berkeley community
 +    * CARMA, ATA, PAPER, and others
 +  - Clarification of topics; wrap-up
 +
 +===== Class List =====
 +
 +| **Name** | **Department** | **Email** |
 +| Casey Law | Astronomy | claw AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Therese Jones | Astronomy | tjones AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Karol Sánchez | Astronomy | 0lorak AT gmail DOT com |
 +| Meredith Hughes | Astronomy | a DOT meredith DOT hughes AT gmail DOT com |
 +| Terry Filiba | EECS | tfiliba AT eecs DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| James McBride | Astronomy | jmcbride AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Aritoki Suzuki | Physics | asuzuki AT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Aaron Lee | Astronomy | alee AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Andrew Siemion | Astronomy | siemion AT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Christopher Klein | Astronomy | cklein AT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Steve Croft | Astronomy | scroft AT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Frank Serduke | Astronomy | frank AT serduke DOT com |
 +| Jim Scala | N/A | jscala2 AT comcast DOT net |
 +| Delia Tosi | Physics | deliatosi AT gmail DOT com |
 +| Katie Silverio | Astronomy | silverio AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Keaton Burns | Math | kburns AT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Adam Miller | Astronomy | amiller AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu | 
 +| Nicholas McConnell | Astronomy | nmcc AT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Alexie Leauthaud| LBNL | asleauthaud AT lbl DOT gov |
 +| Erik Petigura | Astronomy | epetigura AT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Lorenzo Faccioli | LBNL | lfaccioli AT lbl DOT gov |
 +| Katey Alatalo | Astronomy | kalatalo AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Gregory Désvignes | Astronomy | gdesvignes AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Karto Keating | Astronomy | gkeating AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Imke de Pater | Astronomy | imke AT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Dan Werthimer | BWRC/SSL | danw AT ssl DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Dick Plambeck | Astronomy | plambeck AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Mel Wright | Astronomy | wright AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Dave MacMahon | Astronomy | davidm AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Carl Heiles **(faculty sponsor)** | Astronomy | heiles AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Geoff Bower **(faculty sponsor)** | Astronomy | gbower AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Chat Hull **(organizer)** | Astronomy | chat AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Jonathan Pober **(organizer)** | Astronomy | jpober AT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Statia Luszcz-Cook **(organizer)** | Astronomy | statia AT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Amber Bauermeister **(organizer)** | Astronomy | amberb AT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Peter Williams **(organizer)** | Astronomy | pwilliams AT astro DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Organizers | Astronomy | radio101 AT lists DOT berkeley DOT edu |
 +| Class List | N/A | radio101_f10 AT lists DOT berkeley DOT edu |